Fundamentals Courses

Because we cross-list so many courses, it is inevitable that some courses that are advertised on the college catalog will be canceled, moved, altered, and so forth; furthermore, there are always a few grad-level courses offered through the Committee on Social Thought that do not appear in the college catalog at all. These are the courses actively offered for the academic year; it will be updated as the year progresses. To see the projected list of courses to be offered this year, see the catalog.

Autumn 2021

Course No. Title Instructor Description
FNDL 21403 Shakespeare I: Histories and Comedies  N. Ndiaye An exploration of some of Shakespeare's major plays from the first half of his professional career, when the genres in which he primarily worked were comedies and histories. Plays to be studied include The Comedy of Errors, The Taming of the Shrew, The Merchant of Venice, Measure for Measure, A Midsummer Night's Dream, Twelfth Night, Richard III, Richard II, and Henry V. Together, we will read some of Shakespeare’s queerest and most delightful comedies in conversation with darker troubling plays that revolve around sexual violence, racism, nationalism, and political theory, and we will see how such topics put generic boundaries to the test. Valuing those classics for their timeless craft but also for the situated cultural horizon that they evidence, we will explore what it means to take comedy and history seriously. Three short papers will be required. (Pre-1650, Drama)
FNDL 21805 Introduction to Marx A. Ford This introduction to Marx's thought will divide into three parts: in the first, we will consider Marx's theory of history; in the second, his account of capitalism; and in the third, his conception of the state.
FNDL 22001 Foucault and the History of Sexuality A. Davidson This course centers on a close reading of the first volume of Michel Foucault’s The History of Sexuality, with some attention to his writings on the history of ancient conceptualizations of sex. How should a history of sexuality take into account scientific theories, social relations of power, and different experiences of the self? We discuss the contrasting descriptions and conceptions of sexual behavior before and after the emergence of a science of sexuality. Other writers influenced by and critical of Foucault are also discussed.
FNDL 22007 Milan Kundera M. Sternstein  In this course on selected works by Franco-Czech writer Milan Kundera we explore questions of art and kitsch, citizenship pre- and post-communism, and the values of modernity. Texts read include the Czech novels The Joke, the film The Joke (1969), Unbearable Lightness of Being, The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, Farewell Waltz, and the French novels, Ignorance and Festival of Insignificance, and selected essays from essay collections, The Art of the Novel, Testaments Betrayed, and The Curtain.
All texts will be read in their authorized English translations. This is the Gateway Course for 2021-2022.
FNDL 24004 Joyce's Ulysses: An Introduction M. Ellmann This course consists of a chapter-by-chapter introduction to Ulysses. We will focus on such themes as the city, aesthetics, politics, sex, food, religion, and the family, while paying close attention to Joyce’s use of multiple narrators and styles. Students are strongly encouraged to read Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Homer’s Odyssey as preparation for this course. Assignments will consist of quizzes, collaborative class presentations, regular contributions to the online discussion board, and a final paper. (Fiction, 1830-1940)
FNDL 24304 Aquinas on Justice S. Brock We will work through as much as we can of Aquinas’s so-called Treatise on Justice — Summa theologiae II-II, qq. 57-79 — with the help of other passages from him and from his sources, especially Aristotle. 
FNDL 24305 17th Century Political Philosophy: Hobbes and Spinoza  D. Moerner An examination of the political philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and Benedict Spinoza. Each thinker, responding to contemporary political crises, developed theories of the absolute right of states, and connected this absolute right to the absolute power of a state. This course will examine these theories in relation to popular sovereignty, and explore whether either thinker has room for the possibility of radical democracy. Primary literature will focus on Hobbes’s Leviathan and Spinoza’s Theological-Political Treatise and Political Treatise. Secondary literature will look at the reception of these thinkers around the world, including work by Richard Tuck, Alexandre Matheron, Antonio Negri, and Sandra Leonie Field.
FNDL 24613 God of Manga: Osamu Tezuka's "Phoenix," Buddhism, and Post-WWII Manga and Anime A. Palmer How can the Buddhist axiom "All Life is Sacred" describe a universe that contains the atrocities of WWII? Osamu Tezuka, creator of Astro Boy and father of modern Japanese animation, wrestled with this problem over decades in his science fiction epic Phoenix (Hi no Tori), celebrated as the philosophical masterpiece of modern manga. Through a close reading of Phoenix and related texts, this course explores the challenges genocide and other atrocities pose to traditional forms of ethics, and how we understand the human species and our role in nature. The course will also examine the flowering of manga after WWII, how manga authors bypassed censorship to help people understand the war and its causes, and the role manga and anime have played in Japan's global contributions to politics, science, medicine, technology, techno-utopianism, environmentalism, ethics, theories of war and peace, global popular culture, and contemporary Buddhism. Readings will be mainly manga, and the final paper will have a creative option including the possibility of creating graphic work.
FNDL 25001 Molière L. Norman Molière crafted a new form of satirical comedy that revolutionized European theater, though it encountered strong opposition from powerful institutions. We will read the plays in the context of the literary and dramatic traditions that Molière reworked (farce, commedia dell'arte, Latin comedy, Spanish Golden Age theater, satiric poetry, the novel), while considering the relationship of laughter to social norms, as well as the performance practices and life of theater in Molière's day.
FNDL 25301 History, Religion and Politics in Augustine's City of God W. Otten and M. I. Allen Augustine’s City of God is a major work of history, politics, and religion. Written after Rome was sacked by the Visigoths in 410, the work begins an apology (justification) of the Empire’s turn to Christianity and expands to offer a sweeping and deeply theological account of human history and society in terms of earth-bound versus heaven-centered community. Augustine’s citizenship and politics entails living out membership in either fellowship while commingled on earth with the other. Augustine analyzes Roman history and politics as well as the new religion first encouraged and eventually imposed in the wake of Constantine’s conversion.
We shall read the entire work in translation, attending to historical observations, political stances, and religious views. Augustine made arguments of his own but saved huge swaths of Varro and other otherwise lost sources to fashion his historical critique of Rome, social analysis, and many ultimately fresh views on matters like human sexuality in paradise and in heaven.
The class will meet once a week. A supplementary Latin reading group will also convene once a week for close reading of important and demanding selections in the original. There will be some invited international guest speakers
FNDL 25306 Deconstruction and Religion R. Coyne In this seminar we will carefully consider selected works by French philosopher Jacques Derrida. We will address the emergence of religious themes in his early work and reconsider the relation between deconstruction and theology as divergent modes of discourse. We will then examine the roles of messianism, belief, and confession in his later work
FNDL 25312 Kieslowski's French Cinema B. Shallcross Krzysztof Kieślowski's The Decalogue and The Double Life of Veronique catapulted the Polish director to the international scene. His subsequent French triptych Blue, White, Red turned out to be his last works that altered his image and legacy to affirm his status as an auteur and a representative of the transnational cinema. We discuss how in his virtual universe of parallel histories and repeated chances, captured with visually and aurally dazzling artistry, the possibility of reconstituting one's identity, triggered by tragic loss and betrayal, reveals an ever-ambiguous reality. By focusing on the filmmaker's dissolution of the thing-world, often portrayed on the verge of vague abstraction of (in)audibility or (un)transparency, this course bridges his cinema with the larger concepts of postmodern subjectivity and possibility of metaphysics. The course concludes with the filmmaker's contribution to world cinema. All along, we read selections from Kieślowski's and Piesiewicz's screen scripts, Kieślowski's own writings and interviews, as well as from the abundant criticism of his French movies. All materials are in English.
FNDL 25822 Topics in EALC: Themes in Traditional Chinese Thought P. Copp An introduction to ideas and ways of thinking in traditional China, and to some extent East Asia more broadly. This year, we will focus on ideas of qi ("breath," "vital energy," "pyscho-physical stuff"), and related ideas about the human place in the cosmos, from their earliest appearance through their use in Neo-Confucian thought.”
FNDL 27314 Pre-Islamic Poetry: Mu'allaqat, Sa'alik, Ritha' T. Qutbuddin Pre-Islamic poetry laid the foundation for all subsequent Arabic poetry, and formed a key referent for Arabic grammar and Qurʾān exegesis. Its structure, motifs, and images constituted a literary model for Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, Andalusian, and Mamluk poetry, and its grammatical and lexical usages formed a tool to understand the Qurʾānic message and to measure the purity of later Arabic expressions. In this class, we will read closely some of the best known poems of the pre-Islamic period. An assessment by the medieval critics of our poets and some of their poetic theory will also be introduced. Secondary literature will be assigned in order to provide a theoretical framework for the material.
FNDL 27601 Lucretius D. Wray We will read selections of Lucretius' magisterial account of a universe composed of atoms. The focus of our inquiry is: how did Lucretius convert a seemingly dry philosophical doctrine about the physical composition of the universe into a gripping message of personal salvation? The selections include Lucretius' vision of an infinite universe, of heaven, and of the hell that humans have created for themselves on earth.
FNDL 28290 Samuel Richardson's Clarissa F. Ferguson This course will examine the very long and possibly—very probably—the greatest novel in the English language. We’ll consider the effect of Richardson’s decision to conduct his novel as a series of letters, and we’ll pay particular attention to his extraordinary effectiveness in creating complexity in a fairly simple plot and in tracking an ever-expanding cast of characters. The Penguin edition we’ll be using comes to 1499 pages, and they are over-sized pages. This is a course for committed readers! (1650-1830 ; 18th/19th)
FNDL 28400 Passolini A. Maggi This course examines each aspect of Pasolini's artistic production according to the most recent literary and cultural theories, including gender studies. We shall analyze his poetry (in particular "Le Ceneri di Gramsci" and "Poesie informa di rosa"), some of his novels ("Ragazzi di vita," "Una vita violenta," "Teorema," "Petrolio"), and his numerous essays on the relationship between standard Italian and dialects, semiotics and cinema, and the role of intellectuals in contemporary Western culture. We shall also discuss the following films: "Accattone," "La ricotta," "Edipo Re," "Teorema," and "Salo."


Winter 2022

Course No. Title Instructor Description
FNDL 20430 Wordsworth's Prelude T. Campbell In this course we will closely study William Wordsworth’s major work The Prelude, or Growth of a Poet’s Mind, a long, Romantic-era poem that has proved both a paradigmatic model and a point of departure for a wide range of literary writing ever since. Revised throughout Wordsworth’s adult life (ultimately into the fourteen-book form of the poem published upon Wordsworth’s death in 1850), The Prelude helped set the terms that still govern our thinking about modern lyric writing and poetic language, the significance of autobiography and memory, the relationship between humanity and nature, the special spiritual and imaginative place of childhood, and the cycles of political revolution, regret, and healing that have seemed an enduring legacy of the French Revolution. The course will be structured as an extended, book-by-book close reading of the poem alongside illuminating contextual writings from Wordsworth’s interlocutors--both knowing and unknowing, past and present, local and global--that can provide a sense of the poem’s power and continuing relevance but also its problems and limitations. (Poetry, 1650-1830)
FNDL 20700 Aquinas on God, Being and Human Nature S. Meredith This course considers sections from Saint Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica. Among the topics considered are God's existence; the relationship between God and Being; and human nature.
FNDL 21404 Shakespeare II: Tragedies and Romances E. MacKay This course explores mainly major plays representing the genres of tragedy and romance; most (but not all) date from the latter half of Shakespeare's career. After having examined how Shakespeare develops and deepens the conventions of tragedy in Hamlet, Othello, Macbeth, King Lear, and Antony and Cleopatra, we will turn our attention to how he complicates and even subverts these conventions in The Winter's Tale and The Tempest. Throughout, we will treat the plays as literary texts, performance prompts, and historical documents. Section attendance is required. This course is part of the College Course Cluster, The Renaissance. (Pre-1650, Drama)
FNDL 21603 Machiavelli and Machiavellism R. Rubini This course is a comprehensive introduction to Machiavelli’s The Prince in light of his vast and varied literary corpus and European reception. The course includes discussion of Machiavelli as playwright ("The Mandrake"), fiction writer ("Belfagor," "The Golden Ass"), and historian ("Discourses," "Florentine Histories"). We will also closely investigate the emergence of myths surrounding Machiavelli (Machiavellism and anti-Machiavellism) in Italy (Guicciardini, Botero, Boccalini), France (Bodin and Gentillet), Spain (Ribadeneyra), and Northern Europe (Hobbes, Grotius, Spinoza) during the Counter Reformation and beyond.
FNDL 22850 Tolstoy's Late Works W. Nickell This course examines the works written by Tolstoy after Anna Karenina, when he abandoned the novel as a form and gave up his copyright. Readings include his influential writings on non-violence and vegetarianism, his challenges to church and state authority, as well as later literary works, which some believe surpass the famous novels he had renounced. We will also explore the particularities of Tolstoy’s charisma in these years, when he came to be viewed as a second Tsar in Russia and as a moral authority throughout the world.
FNDL 23780 The Chinese Classics E. Shaughnessy The course will survey the first three of the Chinese Classics, the Yi jing or Classic of Changes, Shu jing or Classic of Documents, and Shi jing or Classic of Poetry, in three different moments of their histories: when they were first created, when they were canonized as classics, and when they were treated as the timeless wisdom at the heart of China's traditions. All readings will be done in English, and will include both primary documents and some secondary readings.
FNDL 24307 Einstein for Everyone T. Pashby Einstein’s revolutions in physics led to fundamental changes in how we understand the universe. Among other things, we seem to have learned from Einstein about the existence of black holes and gravitational waves, that time is not absolute but relative, that the universe is expanding, that gravity is not a force. But how is someone who doesn't know much physics to figure out if this or that moral really is vindicated by Einstein's work? This course covers just enough of Einstein's work at an elementary level to help answer such questions. High school math is required but we will provide an understanding of special and general relativity at a conceptual level, without calculations or problem sets.
FNDL 24308 An Introduction to Martin Heidegger's Sein and Zeit M. Willer Though unfinished, Martin Heidegger’s Sein und Zeit is one of the most influential contributions to 20th century philosophy. In it, Heidegger proposes nothing less than an exposition (in fact, a restatement) of the question of Being --- a question whose subject matter is inherently intertwined with the concerns and affairs of the inquirer. Systematizing and indeed radicalizing ideas from Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, and Husserl, Sein und Zeit is at the same a critique of the Western philosophical tradition’s neglect of the Seinsfrage. In this course we will proceed systematically through Sein und Zeit, seeking to understand its basic moves, motivations, and key arguments. 
FNDL 25307 Milton and Blake: Conceptions of the Christian Epic R. Rosengarten Milton wrote Paradise Lost to capture in epic form the essence of Christianity; Blake wrote Jerusalem to correct Milton's mistakes. We'll read them together to get in on the debate.
FNDL 26100 Les Misérables R. Morrissey In this course we read "Les Misérables" and discuss the work's message, structure, and aesthetic vision. We will be particularly attentive to Victor Hugo's role as an observer of nineteenth-century French society as well as an actor in the political life of his times. All classes and texts in French; presentations preferred in French, but English will be acceptable depending on the concentration. Written work in French or English.
FNDL 26900 Czech New Wave Cinema M. Sternstein The insurgent film movement known as the Czech New Wave spawned such directors as the internationally acclaimed Milos Forman (The Fireman’s Ball, Loves of a Blonde), Jiri Menzel (Closely Watched Trains), JanKadar (The Shop on Main Street), and Vera Chytilova (Daisies), and the lesser known but nationally inspirational Evald Schorm, Jarmir Jires, Odlrich Lipsky,and Jan Nemec. The serendipitous life of the Czech New Wave is as much a subject of the course’s inquiry as close technical and semantic research of the films themselves.
FNDL 26903 Gombrowicz: Writer as Philosopher  B. Shallcross In this course, we dwell on Witold Gombrowicz the philosopher, exploring the components of his authorial style and concepts that substantiate his claim to both the literary and the philosophical spheres. Entangled in an ongoing battle with basic philosophical tenets and, indeed, with existence itself, this erudite Polish author is a prime example of a 20th century modernist whose philosophical novels explode with uncanny laughter. In contrast to many of his contemporaries, who established their reputations as writers/philosophers, Gombrowicz applied distinctly literary models to the same questions that they explored. We investigate these models in depth, as we focus on Gombrowicz’s novels, philosophical lectures, and some of his autobiographical writings. With an insight from recent criticism of these primary texts, we seek answers to the more general question: What makes this author a philosopher?
FNDL 27602 Greek Epic E. Austin Allies in the Iliad. PQ: GREK 20300 or equivalent.
In this course we will read Iliad 12, 15, 16, and portions of 18 in Greek, focusing on how the poem depicts allies on the battlefield. We will explore the diversity of motivations among Homeric fighters and the heroic standards set by the Trojan allies Sarpedon and Glaukos. Our aim will be to evaluate the poem’s many answers to the question “why do men fight?” with an eye to relationality and heroic excellence. Two years or more of Greek required.
FNDL 29020 The Shadows of Living Things: The Writings of Mikhail Bulgakov A. Ilieva “What would your good do if evil did not exist, and what would the earth look like if all the shadows disappeared? After all, shadows are cast by things and people. . . . Do you want to strip the earth of all the trees and living things just because of your fantasy of enjoying naked light?” asks the Devil. Mikhail Bulgakov worked on his novel The Master and Margarita throughout most of his writing career, in Stalin’s Moscow. Bulgakov destroyed his manuscript, re-created it from memory, and reworked it feverishly even as his body was failing him in his battle with death. The result is an intense contemplation on the nature of good and evil, on the role of art, and the ethical duty of the artist, but also a dazzling world of magic, witches, and romantic love, and an irresistible seduction into the comedic. Laughter, as shadow and light, as the subversive weapon but also as power’s whip, grounds human relation to both good and evil. Brief excursions to other texts that help us better understand The Master and Margarita.
FNDL 29300 Machiavelli's Discourses on Livy N. Tarcov This course is devoted to reading Machiavelli’s Discourses on Livy supplemented by substantial selections from Livy's history of Rome. Themes include princes, peoples, and elites; republics and principalities; pagan and Christian religion and morality; war and empire; founding and reform; virtue, corruption, liberty, and fortune; ancient history and modern experience; reading and writing; and theory and practice.


Spring 2022

Course No. Title Instructor Description
FNDL 20403 Wordsworth's Prelude T. Campbell In this course we will closely study William Wordsworth’s major work The Prelude, or Growth of a Poet’s Mind, a long, Romantic-era poem that has proved both a paradigmatic model and a point of departure for a wide range of literary writing ever since. Revised throughout Wordsworth’s adult life (ultimately into the fourteen-book form of the poem published upon Wordsworth’s death in 1850), The Prelude helped set the terms that still govern our thinking about modern lyric writing and poetic language, the significance of autobiography and memory, the relationship between humanity and nature, the special spiritual and imaginative place of childhood, and the cycles of political revolution, regret, and healing that have seemed an enduring legacy of the French Revolution. The course will be structured as an extended, book-by-book close reading of the poem alongside illuminating contextual writings from Wordsworth’s interlocutors--both knowing and unknowing, past and present, local and global--that can provide a sense of the poem’s power and continuing relevance but also its problems and limitations. (Poetry, 1650-1830)
FNDL 21221 Don Quixote F. de Armas The course will provide a close reading of Cervantes' "Don Quijote" and discuss its links with Renaissance art and Early Modern narrative genres. On the one hand, "Don Quijote" can be viewed in terms of prose fiction, from the ancient Greek romances to the medieval books of knights errant and the Renaissance pastoral novels. On the other hand, "Don Quijote" exhibits a desire for Italy through the utilization of Renaissance art. Beneath the dusty roads of La Mancha and within Don Quijote's chivalric fantasies, the careful reader will come to appreciate glimpses of images with Italian designs. Taught in English. Students seeking Spanish credit will read the text in the original and use Spanish for the course assignments.
FNDL 21300 James Joyce: Ulysses S. Meredith This course considers themes that include the problems of exile, homelessness, and nationality; the mysteries of paternity and maternity; the meaning of the Return; Joyce's epistemology and his use of dream, fantasy, and hallucinations; and Joyce's experimentation with and use of language.
FNDL 21714 Boccaccio's "Decameron" J. Steinberg One of the most important and influential works of the middle ages—and a lot funnier than the "Divine Comedy." Written in the midst of the social disruption caused by the Black Death (1348), the "Decameron" may have held readers attention for centuries because of its bawdiness, but it is also a profound exploration into the basis of faith and the meaning of death, the status of language, the construction of social hierarchy and social order, and the nature of crisis and historical change. Framed by a storytelling contest between seven young ladies and three young men who have left the city to avoid the plague, the one hundred stories of Boccaccio’s "Decameron" form a structural masterpiece that anticipates the Renaissance epics, Chaucer’s "Canterbury Tales," and the modern short story. Students will be encouraged to further explore in individual projects the many topics raised by the text, including (and in addition to the themes mentioned above) magic, the visual arts, mercantile culture, travel and discovery, and new religious practices. Taught in English.
FNDL 22207 Lu Xun: Foundational Texts of Modern Chinese Literature Y. Ji Lu Xun (1881-1936) is widely considered the greatest writer of 20th-century China. Poet, satirist, and a compassionate advocate for social reform, he set the tone for a big part of modern Chinese literature and continues to be an unavoidable reference for anyone hoping to understand Chinese society today. This course is a reading of a broad selection of his works. In addition to studying the most famous short stories in detail, we will also explore the lesser-known essays and work towards an expanded analysis of his art and thought. In particular, we will emphasize his role as a social reformer and discuss his views on the following issues: gender; education; science and medicine; nationalism and Sino-Japanese relations; Marxism and revolution. All readings are in English and no knowledge of Chinese is required. Because Lu Xun wrote extensively about Japanese, Russian, and German literatures, students will have the opportunity to design their own comparative reading project.
FNDL 22208 Dream of the Red Chamber and Late Imperial China A. Fox The eighteenth-century novel Dream of the Red Chamber occupies an unparalleled place in Chinese literary culture. This story of a peculiar boy born into a wealthy family in decline was an instant hit when first published and remains the subject of innumerable studies and adaptations to this day. A novel of philosophical complexity, emotional richness, and lush materiality, Dream of the Red Chamber offers an affecting portrait of the psyche of a young misfit, a reflection on memory and the act of writing, and a sprawling, encyclopedic view of Qing dynasty society. Our reading of the novel will pay close attention to the text itself while also situating it within the social, cultural, and intellectual history of late imperial China. 
FNDL 24309 Aristotle's De Anima with Aquinas' Commentary S. Brock There is perhaps no better introduction to St. Thomas Aquinas's philosophy of human nature than his commentary on Aristotle's classic treatment of the fundamental principles of earthly life, the De anima. Of course Aquinas also had other sources, as well as some ideas of his own, but the De anima provides him with the basic philosophical terms and framework. His interpretations continue to engage readers of Aristotle; and without some grasp of them, his theological writings on man are hardly intelligible. This course will be a close reading and discussion of the commentary, with occasional references to other works and other thinkers.
FNDL 24311 Introduction to Wittgenstein B. Callard This course is an introduction to the central ideas of Wittgenstein--in philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics and logic, philosophy of mind, epistemology, philosophy of religion, metaphilosophy, and other areas of the subject. We will attempt to understand, and to evaluate, these ideas. As part of this attempt, we will explore Wittgenstein’s relation to various others figures—among them Hume, Schopenhauer, Frege, and the logical positivists.
FNDL 25308 Black Theology: Hopkins vs. Cone D. Hopkins Black Theology of Liberation, an indigenous USA discipline and movement, began on July 31, 1966 and spread nationally and internationally when James H. Cone published his first book in March 1969. Since that time, a second generation has emerged. In this course, we will create a debate between the second generation (represented by Dwight N. Hopkins) and the first generation (represented by James H. Cone). We will look at the political, economic, cultural, gender, and sexual orientation parts of this debate.
FNDL 25311 Pale Fire M. Sternstein  This course is an intensive reading of Pale Fire by Nabokov.
FNDL 25688 The Arts of Number in the Middle Ages: The Quadrivium R. Fulton Brown Alongside the arts of language (grammar, rhetoric, and logic), medieval students would encounter the arts of number: arithmetic, the study of pure number; geometry, number in space; music, number in time; and astronomy, number in space and time (in Stratford Caldecott's formulation). In this course, we will be following this medieval curriculum insofar as we are able through some of its primary texts, many only recently translated, so as to come to a better appreciation of the way in which the study of these arts affected the development of the medieval European intellectual, scientific, and artistic tradition. This is a companion course to "The Arts of Language in the Middle Ages: The Trivium," but the two courses may be taken in either order
FNDL 27603 Greek Oratory N. Dik Aeschines and Demosthenes. These two orators were fierce rivals in Athens; the luck of textual transmission allows us to read both of them smearing the other, and to explore what apparently passed for valid argument in the Athenian lawcourts. Demosthenes produced his finest work in attacking Aeschines; in this class we will explore both men’s writings in depth. Two years or more of Greek required.